Ziara za viongozi wa Benki ya Dunia nchini Tanzania ni sehemu ya kumakinisha unyonyaji wa Mabepari kwa Mataifa machanga.

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Mnamo  tarehe  19/03/2017 Raisi wa  Benki  ya  Dunia  (world Bank Group), Dr Jim Yang Kim alizuru Tanzania  kwa  ziara  ya  kikazi ya  siku  tatu mpaka  21/03/2017. Ziara  hii  ya  Kim imefuatiwa na  ziara  ya  Makhtar Diop, makamu  wa  Raisi wa  Benki  ya  Dunia  kwa  Afrika  aliyoifanya hapa nchini  tarehe 24 mpaka  26 januari, 2017.

  1. Malengo ya  ziara: ziara  hizi zinalenga  yafuatayo:

A: kumakinisha  maslahi  ya  Amerika  na  kufafanua  sera  ya  mambo  ya  nje  ya  Amerika  kwa  Tanzania. Ifahamike  Benki  ya  Dunia  ilianzishwa   julai 1944, Breton Woods, New  Hampshire, Amerika. Ilianzishwa  na  Amerika  kama  taasisi ya  kusaidia  nchi za  ulaya kutokana na athari za vita  ya  pili ya dunia iliyoisha 1945.Tangu  hapo  Amerika  huamua  kila  kitu  ikiwemo nani  asaidiwe, uraisi, muundo, mabadiliko ya  benki  hiyo  n.k. Amerika  pekee  ndiyo yenye  kura ya  turufu (veto) katika  benki  hiyo. Amerika inahodhi asilimia  16 kati  ya  85 ya  kura  zinazohitajika ili kufanya  maamuzi  katika  benki  hiyo.        Amerika  huitumia  benki  hii  kueneza  sera  zake  za  mambo  ya  nje  (ukoloni) na  hiyo kumakinisha  maslahi  yake. Mfano:  mwaka  1972 ilizuia  msaada  wa  benki  ya  dunia  kwa  Chile iliyokuwa chini ya Rais  Salvador Allende, na  kupelekea  mapinduzi  ya  1973 yaliyopelekea  mauaji  ya  Allende na  kutawala  dicteta Augustino Pinochet, ambapo Amerika  ilizidisha  misaada  yake  na  kufikia dolari 350.5 milioni  kutoka  dolari  27.7 milioni kipindi  cha  Allende. Hii  ilikuwa  chini  ya  Rais  Nixon na  mshauri  wake wa  kijeshi  Henry  Kissinger. Mwaka  1982, Rais Reagan alizuia  msaada wa  benki  hiyo  kwa  Nicaragua. Yameelezwa  haya  kwa  wazi  pia  katika  ripoti  ya  SAPRIN ya mwaka 2002.

Amma  kuhusu  sera  ya  sasa ya  Amerika  kwa  Tanzania  haijabadilika  nayo  ni  kuendelea  kuitumia  kikanda, na  kuifunga  na  mikataba  ili  Ulaya  isije  ikarejesha  ushawishi  wake  hasa  Uingereza. Akafafanua  haya  makamu  wa  Rais  ya  benki  hiyo  Diop pale  aliposema  “japo  ni  mapema  kuelezea  utawala  mpya  (wa Trump) lakini  sitarajii  mabadiliko  makubwa  (ya  sera  zake  kwa  Tanzania)”  Pia  akaongeza  Diop “kitu  muhimu  ni  kuwa  taasisi za  kikanda  zinapaswa  kufanya kazi  kwa  ufanisi  mkubwa  “(The  citizen, 26/01/2017).

B: Kukagua  maagizo  na  mipango  iliyopangwa  Tanzania  na  benki hiyo. Mipango  ya  Tanzania  mingi  ni  maelekezo  kutoka  benki  hii, na  hapa  tutaleta  mifano  michache:

  • Upanuzi wa  bandari  ya  Dar es  salaam: Ripoti  wa  Benki  ya  Dunia  2014, ilisema  “Tanzania  na  nchi za  jirani  wanapoteza dolari bilioni 2.6 kila  mwaka  kutokana  na  ufanisi  hafifu  wa  bandari ya  Dar es  salaam”

Taarifa  hii  ndiyo  inayopelekea  mkataba  wa  mkopo  wa  dolari 305 milioni wa  upanuzi wa  bandari  ya  Dar es salaam. “mkataba  wa  mkopo ulifanyika  kufuatia  mazungumzo  kati  ya  rais  John  Magufuli  na  Makhtar  Diop, makamu  wa  rais  wa  Benki  ya  Dunia  kwa  Afrika “(Reuters, 27/01/2017).

  • Uongezwaji wa  kodi  na  sera  za  kubana  matumizi:  Katika  taarifa  ya Benki  ya  Dunia ya  01/07/2015 iliyopewa  jina  la  “kwa  nini watanzania  wanatakiwa  kulipa  kodi” (why Tanzanians  should  pay Taxes) imesisitiza  juu  ya  serikali kupanua  wigo na  kukuza  ukusanyaji  wa

Ripoti  hii  ya  Benki  ya  Dunia  kwa  kiasi  kikubwa  ndiyo  imekuwa  dira  ya  utawala  wa  sasa, kukusanya  kodi  na  kuongeza  kodi  kwa  wananchi wanyonge. Makusanyo  ya  kodi  yalifikia dolari billion  6 kwa mwaka 2014 ambayo  yaliweza  kulipia  asilimia 75 ya  mishahara  ya  wafanyakazi wote, bila  kufanyika  mradi  wowote  wa  kimaendeleo.

Mbali na kuwa ukusunyaji  wa  kodi  umeongezeka  lakini  bado  nchi  inaendelea   kukopa  kwa masharti magumu bila ya kujali uzito unaowakabili raia wakati wa kulipa madeni hayo. Sambamba na hilo kimsingi  kodi  hizi  hazijagusa  sekta nyeti kama  madini, gesi, n.k  sekta  ambazo wawekezaji  wake  wakuu  ni makampuni ya kimarekani.

Kwahiyo  alipokuja  Diop  alitoa  maagizo kwa serikali ya Tanzania  na  Kim  amekuja  kukagua  utekelezaji  wake “ ziara  ya  Kim  inakuja  kufuatia  ziara  iliyofanywa  na  makamu wa  rais  wa  Benki   ya  Dunia  kanda  ya  Afrika, Makhtar  Diop  mwezi  januari  mwaka  huu  Tanzania” (RFI, 19/03/2017).

Na ni  wazi  rais Magufuli  ametekeleza  vizuri  maagizo  na  Kim  aliashiria   haya  aliposema   “nina  imani  sana  na  Magufuli “(mwananchi 21/03/2017) na  akaongeza  Kim  kuwa  “ nitakuja  tena  Tanzania  kuangalia  maendeleo  yaliyofikiwa”

C: Kuifunga  Tanzania  na  mikataba  ya  kinyonyaji: Licha  ya  kupiga  kelele  za  kubeza  misaada  ya  wakoloni, kwa kiasi kikubwa kabisa bado  Tanzania inategemea  misaada kutoka kwa wakoloni  na  chini  ya  mfumo  huu wa  kibepari haitarajiwi kattu   kuachana na sera hii  ya kutegemea  misaada.

Rais  Magufuli  aliita  misaada  ya  wahisani  “ mkate  wa  masimango” na  kusema  “kuliko  kula  mkate  huo  ni bora  kushindia  mihogo”(mwananchi 18/04/2016). Pia  akasema  “ kwa  hiyo  ni  lazima  sisi  watanzania  kusimama  sisi  wenyewe” ( Rai, 31/03/2016). Misaada  hii ya benki ya dunia kwa Tanzania haijaanza  leo,  mwaka  1960 Benki  ya  Dunia  ilitoa  dolari 2.8 millioni  kwa  ajili  ya  kiwanda  cha  sukari  cha  kilombero, 1965 ilitoa dolari milioni 5 kwa  ajili  ya  kilimo, 1962 ilitoa dolari milioni  4.6 katika  mradi  wa  ujenzi  wa  shule  na  mpaka  sasa  inadhamini  miradi  23 kwa  dolari bilioni  3.6 na  miradi  7  ya  kikanda  kwa dolari milioni  551  na  hiyo kufanya  jumla  ya misaada yake kufikia  dolari bilioni  4. 3

Mikataba  hii  inaifunga  Tanzania  kuendelea  kuwa  mtumwa  wa  Amerika  na  ubepari  kama  tutakavyoeleza  baadaye, licha  ya  kulitumbukiza  taifa  katika  madeni endelevu  na  umasikini  uliokithiri.

D:Kukuza mahusiano  kati  ya  Tanzania  na  Benki ya Dunia: Kwa kuzingatia sababu hizo 3 hapo juu  ndiyo zinaleta picha  ya  kile  kilichotajwa  na  Taarifa  ya  Benki  hiyo  juu  ya  ziara  ya  Kim  nchini  Tanzania  17/03/2017  ikisema  kuwa, ziara  inalenga  kuzungumzia  mahusiano  kati  ya  Tanzania  na  Benki  ya  Dunia  na  kukagua  miradi inayodhaminiwa  na  Benki  ya  Dunia.

2 .Madhara  ya  misaada  hii  kwa  Tanzania  na  nchi zinazoendelea:

A: Tanzania: Madhara  yaliyoletwa  na  Benki  hii  na misaada yake kwa  Tanzania  ni  makubwa  sana, tukianza  na  umasikini, ambapo  misaada  hii  (mikopo)  ilipelekea  Tanzania  kuwa  katika  nchi  zinazodaiwa  sana   (Highly  Indebted countries). Licha  ya  misaada  yote hiyo,  umasikini  jumla  umeongezeka ambapo asilimia sabiini (70%) ya  watanzania   wanaishi  kwa chini  ya  dolari 2  kwa  siku ( Tanzania  mainland  poverty  Assessment Report, World  Bank, 7/05/2015)

Mikopo  hii  imesababisha ongezeko la ukosefu ya  ajira hasa kwa vijana wanaohitimu masomo yao. Ni kutokana na sera mbovu za Benki hii ndio zilizopelekea kuuwawa viwanda vyetu na mashirika ya umma hapa nchini. Ni watanzania  milioni  2.3  tu  ndio  waliomo  katika  ajira  rasmi  (The  Employment and  Earnings  Survey Report NBS, 2015)

Ama  ujinga  umeongezeka  sana, katika  miaka  ya  1970 mpaka  1980, watanzania  80% walijua  kusoma  na  kuandika, lakini  licha  ya  mikopo  ya  mabilioni  ya  dola  iliyoelekezwa katika  sekta  ya  elimu 78% ya watanzania hawajui kusoma na kuandika. (allafrica.com 8/9/2016).

Mikopo hii imeongeza  deni  la  taifa  na  kufikia  trilioni  40, wastani  wa  milioni  1  kwa  kila  mtanzania  (BBC, 05/07/2016).

B: Madhara  kwa  nchi  zinazoendelea  kwa  ujumla: Tunaweza  kuyaona  kwa  kifupi  kama  yafuatayo:

Katika  ripoti ya  Benki  ya  Dunia  2002, iliyofanywa  na  SAPRIN (Structural Adjustment Participatory Review International  Network) imefafanua  kuwa  sera  za  Benki  ya  Dunia zimeongeza  umasikini  ukosefu wa  ajira, ukosefu wa  usalama, utapia mlo na uchumi  mbovu, ambapo  Afrika  ndiyo iliyoathirika  zaidi.

Inaendelea  kueleza  ripoti  hiyo  kuwa  sera  hizo  zilipelekea  mgogoro wa madeni  (1980’s  Debt crisis) kwa  nchi zinazoendelea, kutoka  1986-1997, ambapo watu  milioni  460, nusu  ya  wakazi  wa  latin Amerika  waliingia  katika  umasikini  mkubwa, ikiwa  ni  ongezeko  la  watu  milioni  60 kwa  miaka  10 tu.

Inafafanua vile vile ripoti hiyo kuwa Uchumi  wa  Afrika  ulishuka  kwa  15% kati ya mwaka  1980 mpaka  2000, nusu  ya  watu  wa  Afrika,  350 milioni  kati  ya  682  milioni  walikuwa  katika  umasikini  wa  kupitiliza  kufikia mwaka 2003 na hali inazidi kuwa mbaya siku hadi siku.

Taarifa  ya  taasisi  ya  Canada  ya  sera  mbadala  julai, 2004 iliyoitwa  “Impoverishing  a continent. The World Bank and the IMF in Africa, inafafanua  yafuatayo  pia:

Usafirishaji  wa  malighafi  zisizo mafuta  umeshuka  kwa  35% tangu  1997, Deni  la  Africa  limeongeza  kwa  500% tangu  mwaka  1980 na  kufikia dolari bilioni  333 mwaka  2004 na  bilioni  430 kwa  latin Amerika. Nchi  za Afrika kusini  mwa  jangwa  la  sahara  zimepeleka  kwa  wakoloni dolari bilioni  229 tangu  1980 mpaka 2004, ambayo  ni  mara  nne  ya  deni  halisi.

Hivyo  kwa  kifupi  ziara  hizi  hazina  tija  yeyote kwa  nchi  zetu changa  bali  maafa  na  kuendeleza  ukoloni. Ni jukumu la wananchi wote kuinua sauti zao kuzilaani na kuzipinga ziara hizi hata kama baadhi ya viongozi vibaraka huzitumia kwa kujifakharisha na kuonesha uungwaji mkono na misaada wanayoipata kutoka kwa taasisi hizi eti ni kutokana na ubora wa sera zao za kiuchumi kwa wananchi wao.

Saidi Bitomwa

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